April 26 2013

Forgotten History: The Cincinnati Social Unit Experiment

Central and Harrison Aves., Cincinnati, OH

Brighton – a small, tightly woven community of artists and art galleries, is located Northwest of Over the Rhine and downtown Cincinnati. It retains a ghostly atmosphere – a quiet neighborhood, where age-old nineteenth century Italianate buildings sit dormant against a backdrop of a modern city, now beginning to regain its former prominence. Walking these narrow streets, a person can, for a moment, almost feel the history of a once bustling and vibrant neighborhood, which today, is virtually abandoned. Its streetcar and subway lines were long ago removed, its storefronts boarded up, sealed or displaced. However, this neighborhood was, at the beginning of the 20th century, an epicenter for a radical form of Community Organizing known as the Social Unit Experiment.

Central Ave, Cincinnati, OHIntersection of Kindel Ave. and Beloit Alley, Cincinnati, OHIntersection of Kindel Ave. and Beloit Alley, Cincinnati, OH

The Social Unit Experiment, envisioned by the National Social Unit Organization (NSOU), carried out an ambitious plan from 1917 – 1920. Designed in part by Harvard Sociologist, Wilber C. Phillips, the plan was initiated in Mohawk-Brighton (Modern day Brighton). The experiment arrived in Cincinnati in connection to a new philosophy, which reimagined the urban planning and social network of city neighborhoods through a self-sustaining social structure.

Mooney, M. (1978). "Mohawk-Brighton: A Pioneer in Neighborhood Health Care." Cincinnati Historical Society Bulletin 36, 57-72.Mooney, M. (1978). "Mohawk-Brighton: A Pioneer in Neighborhood Health Care." Cincinnati Historical Society Bulletin 36, 57-72.

Mooney, M. (1978). "Mohawk-Brighton: A Pioneer in Neighborhood Health Care." Cincinnati Historical Society Bulletin 36, 57-72.

According to Phillips, each person was to become a component of a “genuine and efficient democracy.” The Social Unit Plan organized residents living in Mohawk-Brighton to be accountable for the health, safety and welfare of each other. Each person was part of a hierarchical organization, which instilled individual leadership to residents through a block-by-block community organizing approach. This method assured, in theory, that all would have a voice in participatory neighborhood planning.

The experiment, lasting four years, was able to achieve significant milestones for improving quality of life in Brighton, but its longevity, however, was ended by political forces at home and overseas. The program would ultimately lose its financial support, become attacked from former Cincinnati Mayor, John Galvin and be accused of having “socialistic tendencies.

Phillips would go on to publish Adventuring for Democracy in 1940 and later develop a nonprofit organization called the Social Unit Institute to continue his research.

Have similar models of community organizing taken place in your city or neighborhood? Could this level of community organizing be possible again? Please respond with your thoughts.

Credits: Photographs by Geoff Bliss. Images and data linked to sources.

Geoff Bliss

Geoff Bliss grew up in Woodstock, New York and will soon graduate from the Master of Community Planning program at the University of Cincinnati with a focus in Physical Planning. He holds a B.S. in Applied Arts & Science from the Rochester Institute of Technology where he studied Political Science & Archeology. With broad interests in Urban Planning, Geoff is interested finding relationships between Sustainable Development, Urban Archeology, Public Art, and DIY Urbanism. As a Grid blogger, Geoff reported on a wide range of Urban Planning & Urban Design topics in New York City and Cincinnati, OH.

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This entry was posted on Friday, April 26th, 2013 at 9:37 am and is filed under Blogging Team, Branding, Community/Economic Development, Content, Environmental Design, Environmental Non-Profit, Government/Politics, History/Preservation, Housing, Infrastructure, Land Use, Social/Demographics, Transportation, Urban Development/Real Estate, Urban Planning and Design. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

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4 Responses to “Forgotten History: The Cincinnati Social Unit Experiment”

  1. Samantha Brockfield Says:

    I have been researching this experiment for years and have recently begun writing poetry about Brighton. Also started a NextDoor site for Brighton-Mohawk neighbors: https://nextdoor.com/invite/fq4r0tw53jvkus67ldi2

  2. Geoff Bliss Says:

    Samantha, that’s great! I was first introduced to the experiment from Brittany Skelton a few months ago and have also been captivated by it since then. It’s astonishing to think that this event even took place in Cincinnati, given the scale and logistics needed. I honestly think that it’s an event that more people in Cincinnati should know about, as it’s an important part of their history.

  3. Geoff Bliss Says:

    And I’m pleased to see the NextDoor site go up too. I hope residents living in Brighton will take the time to meet their neighbors. Thank you for commenting.

  4. Farewell to the GRID: Geoff Bliss | The GRID | Global Site Plans Says:

    [...] with Cincinnati Bockfest and moving on to other topics, including strategic planning, neighborhood history and urban development, I reported on Cincinnati through a journalistic approach I had learned in [...]

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